Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration

  1. वक्ता (Speaker) के कहे हुए शब्दों को दो प्रकार से प्रकट किया जा है।
    i) हम वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों कह सकते हैं । जैसे –
    He said,”I am going to Delhi.” (Direct Narration or Direct Speech)
    उपयुक्त वाक्य मे वक्ता (speaker) he है तथा he के कहे हुए शब्दों को ज्यो का त्यों Inverted commas “……….” मे लिखा गया है ।
    ii) हम वक्ता के कहे हुए शब्दों का सारांश (Substance) प्रकट करते है । जैसे –
    He said that he was going to Delhi. (Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech)
    उपयुक्त वाक्य मे वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यो का त्यों न कहकर उसका भाव प्रकट किया जाता है । इसलिए “I” को “he” में तथा “am” को “was” में बदलना पड़ा ।
    Indirect Speech में Inverted commas का प्रयोग नहीं होता है ।

    2. Direct Narration के दो भाग होते है – Reporting Verb तथा Reported Part या Reported Speech.
    i) Reporting Verb – Reporting Part मे वक्ता बात को जिस Finite Verb से आरम्भ करता है उसे Reporting Verb कहते हैं । इसको Invented Commas से बाहर लिखा जाता है ।
    ii) Reported Speech – जो कुछ वक्ता द्वारा कहा जाता है उसे Reported Part या Reported Speech कहते हैं। इसे Inverted Commas के अंदर लिखा जाता है । जैसे –
    Reported Verb              Reported Part या Reported Speech
    Ram said                               “Will you give me your pen?”

    Direct Speech के मुख्य बिन्दु :
    1. Direct Speech मे वक्ता के कथन को Inverted Commas के अंदर रखा जाता है ।
    2. Reporting Verb के पश्चात् comma(,) का प्रयोग होता है ।
    3. Invered commas के अन्दर के भाग का प्रथम अक्षर Capital letter से लिखा जाता है ।

    Direct से Indirect मे बदलने के सामान्य नियम :
    1. Indirect Speech मे Inverted Commas “…….” को हटा देते है ।
    2. Reporting Verb के बाद comma(,) का प्रयोग नहीं होता ।
    3. Reporting Verb का tense कभी नहीं बदलता ।
    4. Reporting Verb को Reported speech के भाव के अनुसार told, requested, advised, ordered आदि में बदल देते हैं ।

 

Tenses में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम (Rules for the change of Tenses)
Rule 1: यदि Reporting Verb, Present अथवा Future Tense मे हो। तो Reported Speech के Verb के Tense में किसी प्रकार का परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं । जैसे:
Direct – Ram says,”Hari has gone to Agra.”
Indirect – Ram says that Hari has gone to Agra.
Direct – Sohan will say,”Asha is very intelligent.”
Indirect – Sohan will say that Asha is very intelligent.
Direct – He has said to me,” Ravi will join the camp.”
Indirect – He has told me that Ravi will join the camp.

Note : say, says या said को Indirect Speech में tell, tells या told में उस समय बदलते है , जब इसके बाद Object (कर्म ) हो । यदि say, says या said के बाद Object न हो तो उन्हें नहीं बदलते ।

Rule 2: यदि Reporting Verb, Past Tense में हो , तो Reported Speech के Tense में परिवर्तन होता है ।
a) Simple Present Tense बदलकर Simple Past Tense हो जाता है। जैसे :
Direct – Mohan said,” Raman tells a lie.”
Indirect – Mohan said that Raman told a lie.

b) Present Continuous या Imperfect को Past Continuous या Imperfect में बदल देते है । जैसे:
Direct – Sonu said to me, “Rakesh is writing a book.”
Indirect – Sonu told me that Rakesh was writing a book.

c) Present Perfect Tense को Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है। जैसे:
Direct – Ramesh said, “Raman has completed his work.”
Indirect – Ramesh said that Raman had completed his work.

d) Present Perfect Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct – He said,” It has been raining since morning.”
Indirect – He said that it had been raining since morning.

e) Past Indefinite को बदल कर Past Perfect में कर देते हैं । जैसे –
Direct – He said,”The horse died in the night .”
Indirect – He said that the horse had died in the night.

f) Past Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct – He said,” The students were learning their lessons.”
Indirect – He said that the students had been learning their lessons.

g) Past Perfect Tense तथा Past Perfect Continuous में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। जैसे:
1. Direct – He said,”Uma had won the match.”
    Indirect – He said that uma had won the match.
2. Direct – She said,”Uma had been reading for two hours.”
    Indirect – She said that Uma had been reading for two hours.

h) यदि Reporting Verb भूतकाल (Past Tense) में है , तो Reported Speech में आने वाले ‘shall’ को should एवं ‘will’ को would में बदल देते है। जैसे:
1. Direct – I said,”I shall play.”
    Indirect – I said that I should play.
2. Direct – She said,”Uma will see a picture.”
    Indirect – She said that Uma would see a picture.

i) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में है , तो Reported Speech में आने वाले ‘can’ को could तथा ‘may’ को might में बदल देते है । परन्तु ‘must’, ‘ought’, ‘could’, ‘would’, ‘might’, ‘had better’ तथा ‘used to’ में परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :
1. Direct – I said,”I can jump into the river.”
    Indirect – I said that I could jump into the river.
2. Direct – She said,”The boy may go.”
    Indirect – She said that the boy might go.
3. Direct – The teacher said,”Ram must be awarded.”
    Indirect – I said that Ram must be awarded.
4. Direct – She said to me,”I should have tried harder.”
    Indirect – She told me that I should have tried harder.

Tense सम्बन्धी नियम के अपवाद (Exceptions)
नीचे लिखी दशाओ में Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होते हुए भी Reported Speech का Tense नहीं बदलता है :
(1) जब कोई सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात (Universal Truth) कही जाए; जैसे :
1. Direct – The teacher said,”The earth moves round the sun.”
    Indirect – The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
2. Direct – He said,”The sun rises in the east.”
    Indirect – He said that the sun rises in the east.

(2) जब कोई आदत सम्बन्धी सत्य (Habitual fact) कहा जाए ; जैसे :
1. Direct – Hari said to Ravi,”Dogs bark at the strangers.”
    Indirect – Hari told Ravi that dogs bark at the strangers.
2. Direct – The teacher said,”When the cat is away, the mice play.”
    Indirect – The teacher said that when the cat is away, the mice play.

(3) जब कोई कहावत (Proverb) कही जाए ; जैसे : 
    Direct – Hari said,”Honesty is the best policy.”
    Indirect – Hari said that honesty is the best policy.

(4) जब किसी ऐतिहासिक घटना (Historical fact) का जिक्र हो ; जैसे:
    Direct – The History teacher said,”Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.”
    Indirect – The History teacher said that Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.

Persons में परिवर्तन के नियम (Rules for the change of Persons)
Rule 1: Direct से Indirect बनाते समय Reported Speech के First Person के Pronouns (I, me, my, mine, we, us, ours) को Reporting Verb के Subject के Person, Number और Gender के अनुसार बदल देते है । जैसे :
1. Direct – I said, ” I do not like that book.”
    Indirect – I said that I did not like that book.
2. Direct – You said, “I am learning my lesson.”
    Indirect – you said that you were learning your lesson.
3. Direct – They said,”We want to go to Delhi.”
    Indirect – They said that they wanted to go to Delhi.

Rule 2: Direct से Indirect में परिवर्तन करते समय Reported Speech में आये हुए Second Person के Pronouns(you, your, yours) को reporting Verb के Object के Person , Number और Gender के अनुसार बदल देते है । जैसे :
1. Direct – He said to me, “You are happy.”
    Indirect – He told me that I was happy.
2. Direct – You said to him, “You are very sad.”
    Indirect – You told him that you were very sad.
3. Direct – He said to them,”You are not doing any work.”
    Indirect – He told them that they were not doing any work.”

Rule 3: Direct से Indirect में परिवर्तन करते समय Reported Speech में आये हुए Third Person के Pronouns (he, she, it, they, his, her, its, their, him, them) में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है । जैसे :
1. Direct – He said, “He is a postman.”
    Indirect – He said that he was a postman.
2. Direct – You said , “She is not a good girl.”
    Indirect – You said that she was not a good girl.
3. Direct –  Alam said to Kriya,”I shall always help you.”
    Indirect – He told them that he(Alam) would always help her(Kriya).

Table of Changes in Pronouns :

Person Nominative or Subjective form Objective form Possessive form
First Person I, We me, us my, mine, our, ours
Second Person You you your, yours
Third Person He
She
It
They
him
her
it
them
his
her, hers
its
their, theirs

 

समय या स्थिति की निकटता सूचक शब्दों को बदलने के नियम (Rules for change of words expressing nearness of time or position)
Rule 1: Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त समय अथवा स्थिति की निकटता (nearness of time or position) सूचक शब्दों को दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में बदल देते हैं । जैसे :
ago : before
come : go
hence : thence
hither : thither
here : there
just : then
now : then
this : that
these : those
thus : so
to-night : that night
today : that day
tomorrow : the next day or the following day
yesterday : the previous day or the day before
last night/week/year : the previous night/week/year
next week/month/year : the following week/month/year
yesterday morning : the previous morning or the morning before

Example :
1. Direct – He said to them, “I will leave you now.”
Indirect – He told them that he would leave them then.

  1. Direct –Ritesh said to Komal, “I cannot go with you till next Monday.”
    Indirect – Ritesh told Komal that he could not go with him till the following Monday.
  2. Direct –He said to me, “I came here yesterday.”
    Indirect – He told me that he had gone there the previous day.

    Rule 2: यदि this, here और now आदि किसी ऐसी वस्तु या स्थान या समय की और संकेत करे जो कहते समय वक्ता के सामने उपस्थित हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता, बल्कि उन्हें ज्यो का त्यों रख देते है। जैसे :
    1. Direct – He said to me, “This is my house.”
    Indirect – He told me that this was his house.

  3. Direct –The leaders says, “I am glad to be here this morning..”
    Indirect – The leaders says that he is glad to be here this morning.
  4. Direct –He said to me, “I will do it now.”
    Indirect – He told me that he would do it now.

    Rule 3: This या these का प्रयोग यदि समय की ऒर संकेत के लिए होता है तो Indirect में इनको that या those में ही बदलते हैं । पर यदि this या these का प्रयोग Adjectives की भाँति हुआ है तो Indirect बनाते समय that या those के स्थान पर the का प्रयोग भी कर सकते हैं।  Examples :

    1. Direct – He said, “We are going for a party this week.”
    Indirect – He said that they were going for a party that week.

  5. Direct –she said, “I am preparing for the test these days”
    Indirect – The leaders says that he was preparing for the test those days.
  6. Direct –He said, “I have typed all these essays”
    Indirect – He said that he had typed all the essays.

or

He said that he had typed all those essays.

कुछ विशेष परिवर्तन (Some important changes):
A. कभी-कभी Reported Speech में कुछ Nouns, Vocative case में आ जाते है, Indirect Narration में  परिवर्तन करते समय वे Reporting Verb के Object बन जाते हैं । जैसे :
1. Direct – Hemant said, “Ashok, I shall give you a book.”
Indirect – Hemant told Ashok that he would give him a book.

  1. Direct –“My sons” said the old farmer, “I am planting these trees for you.”
    Indirect – The old farmer told his sons that he was planting those trees for them.
  2. यदि Inverted Commas के अंदर सम्बोधन के शब्द (Terms of address) का प्रयोग हो, तो उनको objects में बदल देते है या फिर उन्हें address….as के बाद रखते हैं । जैसे :
    Direct –“Naughty boy” said his mother, “You have been fighting again.”
    Indirect – Addressing her son as a naughty boy the mother said that he had been fighting again.

    C. Needn’t को Indirect speech में ज्यो का त्यों रहने देते हैं । जैसे :
    Direct – He said to his wife, ” I needn’t go there now.”
    Indirect – He told his wife that he needn’t go there then.

    D. यदि Inverted Commas के भीतर “well” या “you see” शब्द हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इन शब्दों को हटा देते हैं क्योकि ये निरर्थक शब्द हैं । जैसे :
    1. Direct – Hemant said, “Well Ashok, I shall give you a book.”
    Indirect – Hemant told Ashok that he would give him a book.

  3. Direct –The mother said, “You see, I am planting these trees for you.”
    Indirect – The mother said that he was planting those trees for them.
  4. जिन शर्त बताने वाले (conditional) वाक्यो से काल्पनिक अथवा अवास्तविक स्थिति का बोध होता है, उनमे अवास्तविक भूतकाल (Unreal past tense) का प्रयोग होता है । Indirect Speech में इनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :
    Direct –He said, ” If my college was near the house I would always be in time.”
    Indirect – He said that if her college was near the house she would always be in time.

    F. Reported Speech में thank you का प्रयोग होने पर Indirect Speech में Reporting verb को thanked में बदल देते हैं । इसी तरह Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त hope, feel आदि को भी Reporting Verb बना देते हैं । जैसे –
    1. Direct – The pupil said to the teacher, “Thank you, sir, for your help.”
    Indirect – The pupil respectfully thanked the teacher for his help.

  5. Direct –She said,”I hope my mother will come tomorrow.”
    Indirect –She hoped that my mother would come the next day.   Interrogative sentences से प्रश्न का बोध होता है , इस प्रकार के sentences को Indirect में बदलते समय निम्नलिखित बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए :

Rule 1: Reporting Verb ‘said to’ को asked या enquired of में बदल देते हैं ।

 

Rule 2 : प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यो में ‘That’ conjuction का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता ।

 

Rule 3 : Indirect में प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य को साधारण वाक्य (Assertive Sentence) बना देते हैं । प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह (?) हटा दिया जाता है , और उसके स्थान पर Full Stop(.) का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

 

Rule 4 : Reported Speech के Pronoun, Verb तथा अन्य शब्दों को Assertive sentences के नियमो के अनुसार बदलते हैं ।

 

Rule 5 : जब Direct Speech में ऐसा प्रश्न हो जिसका उत्तर “Yes” या “No” में दिया जा सके अर्थात Reported Speech किसी सहायक क्रिया (Auxiliary verb) जैसे – is, are, am, was, were, do, does, did, shall, will, has, have, had, can, may आदि से शुरू हुई है तो Indirect Speech को Connective word ‘if’ या ‘whether’ से प्रारम्भ किया जाता है । उसके बाद करता लगाकर फिर से क्रिया का प्रयोग करते हैं । जैसे –

1.Direct – Aksay said to me, ” Are you reading a newspaper?”
   Indirect – Aksay asked me if I was reading a newspaper.

  1. Direct –I said to him, ” Can you tell me what the time is ?”
    Indirect – I asked him whether he could tell me what the time was.

Rule 6 : अगर Reported Speech में सहायक क्रिया Do या Does हो और उसके बाद not न हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उनको हटा देते हैं, और मुख्य क्रिया को Simple Past Tense में बदल देते है । जैसे –
1.Direct – She said to me, “Do you know Hemant?”
   Indirect – She asked me whether I knew Hemant.

  1. Direct –I said to him, “Do you tell me the matter?”
    Indirect – I asked him if he told me the matter.

    Rule 7 : अगर Reported Speech में Do या Does के बाद not हो तो do या does के स्थान पर ‘did’ कर दिया जाता है । इस प्रकार Reported Speech के verb का Past Tense अपने आप बन जाता है । जैसे –
    1.Direct – Father said to me, “Do you not obey me?”
       Indirect – Father asked me if I did not obey him.

  2. Direct –I said to him, “Don’t you go to college today?”
    Indirect – I asked him if he didn’t go to college that day.

Rule 8 : अगर Reported Speech में ‘did’ helping verb हो तो इसे हटा कर मुख्य क्रिया को Past perfect tense में बदल देते है । जैसे –
Direct – He said to me, “Did you give me your phone?”
Indirect – He asked me whether I had given him my phone.

Rule 9 : यदि Reported Speech प्रश्नसूचक शब्द (what, who, which, whom, whose, when, why, how आदि ) से शुरू होती है तो Indirect Speech में कोई अन्य connective नहीं लगाया जाना चाहिए । ये शब्द ही connective होते है । जैसे –
1.Direct – I said to her, “Who are you?”
   Indirect – I asked her who she was.

  1. Direct –He said to him, “Where do you live?”
    Indirect – He asked him where he lived.

Rule 10 : ‘yes’, ‘no’ answer to questions –
1.Direct – I said to her, “Can you give me this book?” She said, “Yes.”
   Indirect – I asked her if she could give me that book. She replied that she could.

  1. Direct –He said to Ashok, “Are you attending the class?” Ashok said, “No.”
    Indirect – He asked Ashok if he was attending the class. Ashok said that he was not.

 

जब किसी वाक्य में आज्ञा (order), परामर्श(advice) या प्रार्थना (request) प्रकट की गयी हो तो उसे Imperative Sentence कहते हैं । इसमें करता you छिपा रहता है तथा वाक्य finite verb से प्रारम्भ होता है ।
Rule 1: Reporting Verb ‘said’ को भाव के अनुसार इस प्रकार बदलते है :

  1. a)order -ordered, commanded
  2. b)advice – advised, urged
    c)request – requested, begged, implored, entreated

Rule 2 : Reported Speech के verb के पहले ‘to’ जोड़कर infinitive बना देते हैं ।

For Example :
Direct : The Teacher said to me, “Sit in your class and learn your lesson.”
Indirect : The teacher ordered me to sit in my class and learn my lesson.

Rule 3: Reported Speech के Vocative Case के noun को Reporting Verb का कर्म (Object) बना देते हैं ।

For Example :
Direct : He said, “Work hard, friends.”
Indirect : He advised his friends to work hard.

Rule 4: जब Reported Speech ‘Do not’ से प्रारम्भ हो, तो इसके परिवर्तन की दो विधिया है जैसे :
a) Reporting Verb को forbade में बदल दिया जाता है तथा Reported Speech में आये हुए ‘do not’ को समाप्त करके क्रिया से पहले to लगा देते है । जैसे :
Direct : The teacher said to the boy, “Do not abuse anyone.”
Indirect : The teacher forbade the boy to abuse anyone.
b) Reporting Verb ‘said’ को भाव  अनुसार ordered, advised या requested में बदला जाता है परन्तु इसमें Reported Speech में से केवल ‘do’ हटता है और ‘not’ के बाद ‘to’ infinitive का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।  जैसे :
Direct : Your father said to the boy, “Do not waste your time.”
Indirect : Your father advised the boy not to waste his time.

Rule 5 : Reported Speech जब never से प्रारम्भ हो तो Reporting verb को advised में बदल देते हैं और never तथा क्रिया के बीच to का प्रयोग करते हैं । जैसे –
Direct : Your father said to the boy, “Never waste your time.”
Indirect : Your father advised the boy never to waste his time.

Rule 6 : जब Reported Speech में ‘Sir’, ‘Please’, ‘Kindly’ आदि शब्दों का प्रयोगहोता होता है तो Reported Verb को requested से बदल देते हैं । जैसे –
Direct : She said to Reena, “Kindly help me.”
Indirect : She requested Reena to help me.

Rule 7 : यदि Reported Speech में If से प्रारम्भ होने वाले clause में सलाह का भाव  है तो Indirect Speech में should का प्रयोग करना चाहिए । जैसे –
Direct : The father said, “If you suffer from cold and cough, consult a doctor surely.”
Indirect :The father said if i suffered from cold and cough, i should consult a doctor surely.

Some more examples :
Direct : She said, “Could i use your pen?”
Indirect : She requested me to use my pen.

Direct : She said, “Would you like to have lunch with me?”
Indirect : She invited me to have lunch with her.

Direct : “Would you please give me your bag?” she said to me.
Indirect : She requested me to give her my bag.

Imperative sentences में आये Let को बदलने के नियम
A) For Proposal (प्रस्ताव)
i) Reporting verb को proposed या suggested में बदल देते हैं ।

  1. ii)Inverted commas को हटाकर that लगाते हैं ।

iii) Objective case (us) को Nominative case (we or they) में reporting verb के subject के person के अनुसार बदलते  हैं ।

  1. iv) Let को should में बदलते हैं और इसे we or they के बाद लिखते हैं।
  2. a) Direct :Sam said, “Let us go for a party.”
    Indirect :Sam proposed that they should go for a party.

    b) Direct : I said to Reena, “Let us play a game.”
    Indirect : I suggested to Reena that we should play a game.

    c) Direct : “Let’s go to the market,” said Asha, “Let’s not,” said Neha.
    Indirect : Asha suggested to Neha that we should go to the market but Neha objected.

or

Asha suggested to Neha that we should go to the market but Neha was against it.

 

Note : For reporting Let’s not as answer to affirmative suggestion we have to use objectedor was against it.

  1. B) For Request (प्रार्थना)
    i)Reporting verb को requested में बदल देते हैं ।
    ii)Let को to let में बदलते हैं या फिर let के स्थान पर that लगाकर noun या pronoun के साथ might be allowed to लिखकर क्रिया की first form लगाते हैं ।
    Note : If request or advice is started with ‘Let there be‘ then we have to report it with ‘that there should be‘.

    a) Direct : He said, “Let me go home.”
    Indirect : He requested to let him go home.

or

He requested that he might be allowed to go home.

  1. b) Direct :I said to Kanika, “Let there be no talk about you.”
    Indirect :I advised to Kanika that there should be no talk about you.

    C) For Command (आदेश)
    i) Reporting verb को ordered में बदल देते हैं ।
    ii) Let के स्थान पर that लगाकर noun या pronoun के बाद should का प्रयोग करते हैं ।
    Direct : The policeman said, “Let the man go.”
    Indirect : The policeman ordered that the man should go.

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